Uses an attributional life-cycle analysis, and process-based cost models, to examine the greenhouse gas emissions, energy inputs and costs associated with producing and recycling lithium-ion cells with three common cathode chemistries: lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC-622), lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide and lithium iron phosphate. Three recycling processes are compared: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical and direct cathode recycling.
Type: Research article
Published in 2019
Author: Rebecca E. Ciez and J. F. Whitacre