Examining different recycling processes for lithium-ion batteries.

Uses an attributional life-cycle analysis, and process-based cost models, to examine the greenhouse gas emissions, energy inputs and costs associated with producing and recycling lithium-ion cells with three common cathode chemistries: lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC-622), lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide and lithium iron phosphate. Three recycling processes are compared: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical and direct cathode recycling.

Type: Research article

Published in 2019

Author: Rebecca E. Ciez  and J. F. Whitacre

Publisher: Nature

Link to article

To get in touch, email us at


The content on this website was created from Autumn 2019 to Summer 2020 during the InnoEnergy SELECT master programme.

  • LinkedIn
  • Twitter

© 2020 ReCell