Tool to model environmental impacts and economical factors of the the entire battery life cycle on cell level (except the use-phase). A variety of different cathode chemistries are included in the model, multiple geographic regions are covered, and special attention is paid to the different recycling processes (pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, and direct cathode recycling). The model (in form of an Excel tool) can be individually configurated and used to support business decisions or policy making.
Type: Research Article
Published in 2019
Author: Qiang Dai, Jeffrey Spangenberger, Shabbir Ahmed, Linda Gaines, Jarod C. Kelly, and Michael Wang